compounding and derivation


Words of the open word classes of Taruven, that is: bare nouns, bare verbs and bare statives, can be compounded. The root meaning, the head, of the compound is always the rightmost word or compound.

Compounds are written as a single word, always.

Statives can be merged with a noun, the statives go first, and the result is a noun. Nouns can be merged with verbs, through incorporation which may wear down to a verbnoun.

Bare nouns, verbs, and statives can also change their meaning or word class through derivation, both with derivational prefixes and derivational suffixes.


Compunding is between two words of the same word class, or one or more statives followed by a noun.

Example 1) is the most common case, direct juxtaposition.

  1. ksānyélla
    ksān + yélla
    star house
    Dyson sphere

If the first word ends in a vowel and the second begins in a vowel, it is not uncommon to add an epenthetic h, like in example 2).

  1. brihaòy
    bri   + -aòy
    cloud + wind

When consonant meets consonant, it can get complicated. There might be sandhi, depending on which dialect the compound originated in, like in 3a) below, or they are simply juxtaposed, as in 3b).

    1. bryatlann
      bryal + thann
      field + way
      way of the field, agriculture, farming
    2. ranfaì
      ran + faì
      2   + parent


Verbnouns are not compounds, they are fixed incorporations. Therefore, the verb goes first in the word. A common argument of the verb is incorporated so often that the combination takes on a life on its own:

  1. rīþann
    rī + þann to name something, give a name

Any object of the verb agrees with and must make sense with the incorporated object:

    1. yrīþann saðhe išmael
      They call me Ishmael
    2. varīþann saðhe išmael
      Call me Ishmael

Example 5a) is also a very formal way of introducing yourself, while 5b) is slightly less formal.

As for the to be called-meaning of rīþann, it has worn all the way to the intransitive verb litann, which can only mean to be called.

  1. litann išmael
    I am called Ishmael.

The least formal way to introduce yourself is as in example 7), which uses no verb at all.

  1. sā išmael
    I am Ishmael.

A short and incomplete list of verbnouns follow:

riharrarī + harralaugh
rīkuìrī + kuìgive birth
rīþannrī + þannname, baptize, call (vd.)
rīellerī + sïellehold a speech
rījarrī + jarsurrender
rīxaìrī + xaìtorture
takuìta + kuìbe born
tajarta + jararrest
tākrita + rīholiday that resembles christmas


Any → Noun

=aì people of (Denmark → Dane)
=ax individual member of set (forest → tree)
=džall time of (gold → golden age, war → wartime)
=ferr seem, appear (blue → apparently blue)
=ia place, land, nation (potato → potatostan)
=iaì person from place, land, nation (potato → potatostani)
=ji name (dances with wolves → Dances with wolves)
=ka technique (standing bird → technique of the standing bird)
=m set of (tree → forest)
na= house of (used in xaran) (Donald → MacDonald)
=na subset of (box → subset of several boxes)
=ryss art of (dance → the art of dancing)
sï= generic (hammer → tool)
=vyšš science of (life → biology)

Any → Stative

-migh manner (I → my way)

Stative → Stative

-a comparative (blue → bluer)
-arre superlative (blue → bluest)
-arrinn hyperlative (blue → too blue)
-e negative comparative (blue → less blue)
-eìre negative superlative (blue → least blue)
-eìrinn negative hyperlative (blue → insuffciently blue)

Noun → Noun

du= male (human → male human)
ki= female (human → female human)

Verb → Noun

ä= doee, object of verb (love → beloved)
=adh result of completed action (break → something broken)
=enn doer, agent of verb (teach → teacher)
=ill object is usable for (wash → washable)
=lann agent is capable of (pass → passable)
=ssa item which does something (to/with something) (dig → digging machine)

Verb → Verb

=aš regular verb to complemented verb
=itarrun swear, vow, promise (accomplish → vow to accomplish)
=lleŋ ought (accomplish → ought to accomplish)
=nnim allow (do → allowed to do, may do)
=rrun swear, vow, promise (accomplish → vow to accomplish)
=skīn counterfactual mood (explode → in case of explosion, ...)
=šeŋŋ willing to (search → want to search)


=hux exponentiation (math) (2 → x2)


-vuh added behind anything is a way to make a very temporary stand in for something else:

  1. aga-vuh
    The "Aga"-word

Stand ins are most commonly used when the real word cannot be recalled in time:

Then we a... a... aga-word to the top of it... oh, go upwards you know but not by our own power... ascended! That was the word I was looking for.

The actual syllable or word in front of -vuh need not have anything to do with the missing word, it just has to be different from all other stand ins used in the same conversation or text that means something else.

Stand ins are exeedingly common in terminological discussions.

If we are to discuss the real meaning of antidisestablishmentarianism, hereafter adi-word...